Background and Aim: nosocomial infection is an infection that has been created in hospitals as a result of touch of a person with infection-causing agents. Therefore, the symptoms of infection may occur during the patient’s stay in the hospital or after discharge. The most common type of infection is an office infection. These infections are one of the most common causes of septicemia and mortality due to nosocomial infections, which are commonly due to the use of invasive methods. There are several ways to transmit a nosocomial infection. In the transmission of nosocomial infections, the indirect transmission is the most common way of transmission of infections, which can be transmitted by the touch of hands of the hospital staff to water, food, biological fluids or infectious medical equipment from the reservoir or carrier person to the susceptible person.
Clastridium Difficile as an important cause of diarrhea in hospitals, due to its survival strength in the hospital environment and its ability to grow in the body of patients under long-term antibiotic therapy is transferred from the infected person to the healthy person. The sources of drinking water that is important reservoir of Pseudomonas and other gram-negative bacteria are a good source for transmission, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Method: In a review study preventing and controlling nosocomial infections was investigated using Internet and specialized journals, and reviewing the literature and databases.
Findings: Significant findings show that there are three main strategies for controlling nosocomial infections. 1- Removing or restricting reservoirs of organisms; 2. Disconnecting the transmission chain; 3. Protecting the host against infection and disease. In the case of removing the carrier or disease reservoir; sterilizing surgical instruments; using disinfectants and antiseptics and the use of sterile methods can play a major role in reducing infections. This is very important in a desert hospital that may have problems with power outages and water problems. To disconnect the transmission chain, we recommend the use of instruments such as gloves, scrubs and glasses that play an important role in transferring blood between personnel and equipment and patients, and the mask that plays an important role in breathing transmission especially about tuberculosis. In addition, washing hands before, during and after contact of hospital staff with the patients is obligatory. It is important to observe the health rules for personal items used by patients. The host protection includes hospitalized patients and hospital personnel.
Discussion and Conclusion: According to world-wide statistics, $ 17 to $ 29 billion in a year is spent on the treatment for nosocomial infections, while it can be saved with appropriate investment in controlling nosocomial infections. Urinary tract infections with 39% prevalence are at highest rank and skin infections with 8% of the prevalence are at the lowest rank of in nosocomial infections. The elderly and patients with pulmonary disease and those have been under surgery are those who are more likely to get nosocomial infections. Reducing the cases of nosocomial infections and the cost of treatment and hospitalization in hospitals should always be considered by selecting appropriate methods for controlling infection and preventing the spread of infectious agents in hospitals and other health centers.
Author: Farideh Taklu
Computer expert of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
Tags: آنتی سپتیک پیشگیری عفونت بیمارستانی عفونت دستگاه ادراری